Such understandings are crucial in predicting the effects of failing pilgrimages and the processes of authentication of places, which can help explain visitation patterns. The aim of this paper is to decipher ways of experiencing religiousness through tourist performances, intersecting textual approaches with the essential embodiment and materiality of the tourist world. In doing so, the paper proposes that tourism and religion are not separate entities but linked through embodied notions of godliness sensed through touristic performances.
This paper provides an empirical test of whether trust and distrust can co-exist in the mind of an employee. Two interrelated questions are considered: Using a concurrent mixed-method design incorporating a structured card sort and in-depth interviews, data were collected from 56 participants in two organisations.
The card sort findings offer little support for the co-existence of trust and distrust, but suggest they could be separate constructs. We also find evidence of two new combinations of weak levels of trust and distrust not previously specified.
They also emphasise how, when employees are distrustful, differing practice interventions may be needed to reduce distrust than those used build trust. To contribute to the literature on innovation and entrepreneurial learning by exploring how SMEs learn and innovate, how they use of both formal and informal learning and in particular the role of networks and crisis events within their learning experience.
Mixed method study, comprising 13 focus groups, over questionnaire responses from SME mangers, 13 focus groups and 20 case studies derived from semi-structured interviews. SMEs have a strong commitment to learning, and a shared vision. Much of this learning is informal through network events, mentoring or coaching.
SMEs that are innovative are significantly more committed to learning than those which are less innovative, seeing employee learning as an investment. Innovative SMEs are more likely to have a shared vision, be open-minded and to learn from crises, being able to reflect on their experiences. There is a need for further process driven qualitative research to understand the interrelationship between, particularly informal, learning, crisis events and SME innovation. SME owners need opportunities and time for reflection as a means of stimulating personal learning — particularly the opportunity to learn from crisis events.
Access to mentors often outside the business can be important here, as are informal networks. This is one of the first mixed method large scale studies to explore the relationship between SME innovation and learning, highlighting the importance of informal learning to innovation and the need for SME leaders to foster this learning as part of a shared organisational vision.
This research explores how elective surgical patients make sense of their hospitalization experiences. An emergent pre-surgery theme is that of a paradoxical position in which they choose to make themselves vulnerable by agreeing to surgery to enhance their health, this necessitating trust of clinicians doctors and nurses.
Their stories tell of unmet expectations and of inability to make shared sense of experiences with clinicians who are responsible for their care. We add to knowledge of how patients play a critical part in the co-construction of safety by demonstrating how patient-clinician intersubjectivity contributes to the type of harm that patients describe. We also provide further evidence of the contribution narrative inquiry can make to patient safety.
Although the return rate for the Web Taking into account effect size, significant differences in response were small other than for open question content. Recommendations regarding use of Web-based surveys WBS are offered and areas for future research suggested. Explaining the purpose of a research study and providing a compelling rationale is an important part of any coaching research project, enabling the work to be set in the context of both existing evidence and theory and its practical applications.
This necessitates formulating a clear research question and deriving specific research objectives, thereby justifying and contextualising the study. In this research note we consider the characteristics of good research questions and research objectives and the role of theory in developing these.
We conclude with a summary and a checklist to help ensure the rationale for a coaching research study is convincing. This paper reflects on the research methodology of a project that explored organisational crisis signals detection using Policy Delphi with a criterion sample comprising 16 senior hotel executives involved in crisis management. The main methodological concerns regarding Delphi are the definition of consensus, the expertise of the panel, its lack of scientific rigour, and -due to its lack of uniformity- reliability and validity of findings.
Policy Delphi by default addresses the first since it does not seek consensus and can, through its design and execution, address the remaining concerns. Carefully designed Policy Delphi can offer a powerful research tool for exploratory research in hospitality, particularly for development of policies and strategies within an organisation. Unlike Normative Delphi, it is not intended as a decision making tool, but rather as a tool to generate options and suggest alternative courses of action for consideration.
The paper presents a valuable research tool that has evaded the attention of many hospitality researchers offering an illustrative example of its use in exploratory research to deliver credible, transferable and confirmable findings. Exploring and evaluating findings from previous research is an essential aspect of all research projects enabling the work to be set in the context of what is known and what is not known. This necessitates a critical review of the literature in which existing research is discussed and evaluated, thereby contextualising and justifying the project.
In this research note we consider what is understood by being critical when reviewing prior to outlining the key attributes of a critical literature review. We conclude with a summary checklist to help ensure a literature review is critical.
Researchers exploring sensitive issues need to obtain valid and reliable information. This may necessitate participants not being sensitised to the precise research focus to prevent contamination of findings. In this paper research exploring feelings of trust and distrust and emotional responses to organisational change is used to assess how a concurrent mixed methods design, utilizing a constrained card sort and in-depth interview, can enable such sensitive issues to be researched without sensitising participants.
This illustrative example provides instructive guidance regarding how to apply this mixed method. It also reveals how feelings of trust and distrust and emotional responses are directly associated with positively and negatively interpreted change situations rather than misappropriated, highlighting reasons for these responses including the role of managers. The paper concludes by considering how this mixed methods design can support researching such sensitive issues in organisations.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of the "transfer" process on relationships between employees' perceived organisational support and affective and continuance commitment within the context of the move to a new employment relationship as part of a public private partnership.
Eight semi-structured interviews informed the design of a questionnaire, which was distributed to facilities management employees of a UK NHS hospital who had been seconded to a private-sector management company. This resulted in effective responses 33 per cent. In new forms of employment relationship, employees' perceptions of the "transfer" process influence significantly their perceptions of the management company and their commitment to it.
Positively perceived organisational support from the management company significantly increases affective and continuance commitment to the management company, particularly amongst those who feel positive about the transfer process. This research focuses upon employee commitment to the management company. Further research is proposed to investigate different foci of commitment as well as the influence of the psychological contract.
The effect of fairness in the "transfer" process is far reaching, lasting beyond the initial transfer. Both parties should work together to enable a smooth employee "transfer" process, supervisors particularly having a strong influence on employees' attitudes and behaviour.
There is a lack of research regarding the antecedents and consequences of commitment of employees, who are managed by one but employed by a different organisation. This study begins to address this gap. This paper explores employees' reactions to the management of post-merger cultural integration in the hotel industry. Using a mixed method design incorporating a structured card sort of possible emotions and subsequent in-depth interview, data were collected from 30 head office employees.
Findings highlight the importance of the human dynamics of a merger, emphasising the importance of strong leadership, open and honest communication as pre-cursors to integration and suggest the need for a pre-merger cultural audit. Merging two organisations involves the dedication of a remarkable level of resources and activities both before and after the merger and yet, a successful outcome is uncertain and is subject to effective management of cultural integration.
Traditional survey-based measures of service quality are argued to be problematic when reflecting individual services and turning measurement into action. This paper reviews developments to an alternative measurement approach, the Service Template Process, and offers an extension to it. The extended process appears able to measure service users' and deliverers' perceptions of service quality independently.
It also enables participants to jointly agree an agenda for quality improvement. The extended process is evaluated in four service situations.
The paper concludes with an assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of the process in comparison with more traditional approaches to measuring service quality. There is an important benefit for businesspeople who are financially literate. Financial literacy helps them to function efficiently at work because they are able to evaluate the information needed to make decisions that have financial ramifications or consequences. Research into the financially literate has tended to concentrate on personal finance issues involving the general public.
The focus of this paper, however, is on small businesses owner-entrepreneurs who, in their first year, are required to understand the financial position and activities of their organisations, and thus do not need to take the activities, statements and advice of their accountants and financial advisors on trust. Using data collected from small businesses over their first year of trading, the findings provide evidence of a degree of financial illiteracy which has implications for the success or failure of this section of the business community.
Purpose - To explore the implications for all employees' psychological contracts of a forced change from permanent to temporary employment status for some employees within an organisation. Each employee undertook a structured card sort of possible emotional responses to change followed by an in-depth interview to explore and explain their categorisation of these responses.
Findings - The nature of psychological contracts and organisational attachments for both permanent employees and forced temporary workers is complex. Permanent employees generally continue to exhibit relational forms of attachment to the organisation. These, they believe, are reciprocated by the organisation.
Reactions from forced temporary workers are more varied. After a period of denial, some develop a more calculative approach to their interactions. Others maintain aspects of their previously developed relational attachments.
Only some temporary workers appear to recognise that their future direction is no longer a concern of the organisation.
Practical implications - Management actions need to be recognised as important in re-defining the nature of psychological contracts. The transitional nature of this process may be prolonged where management imposes transactional contracts and where communication and negotiation to create clear expectations is lacking.
For many students and lecturers evaluation is confined to some form of survey. Whilst these can provide useful feedback, their focus is likely to reflect the values and norms of those commissioning and undertaking the evaluation. Using the example of dissertation supervision, it is argued that a revised Template Process operating within a process consultation framework can meet these concerns.
The article concludes with a discussion of the applicability of the Template Process to evaluating teaching and learning. Relationships within and outside organizations are changing, and the publishing sector is no exception.
However, the roles of author and publisher remain distinct, each dependent on the other for the successful completion of a publishing project. Drawing upon research conducted in the English Language Teaching Division of an international publishing company, this article examines the authorpublisher relationship within a service context.
It considers the characteristics authors and publishers identify to be integral to the relationship, and explores the extent to which the expectations and perceptions of authors and publishers differ. The research findings indicate that there is a mismatch between the characteristics that authors and publishers identify as integral to their relationship.
Whilst publishers focus upon the role of the editor in the nurturing and maintenance of relationships with individual authors, authors consider their relationship to be with the whole publishing house, including the marketing and design functions. Purpose To explore potential mismatches between stakeholders' perceptions and expectations of key and technical skills needed for an advanced modern apprentice within the UK.
Using data collected from the automotive sector, the template process is used to establish lecturer, student and employee stakeholder group's expectations of a person taking up employment alongside an advanced modern apprenticeship or as an advanced modern apprentice.
Perceptions of the extent to which expectations are met and their relative importance are assessed. All stakeholders acknowledge that a skills gap exists across key and technical skills. However, whilst students focus on technical skills, lecturers and employees place greatest emphasis on key skills and their ability to transfer them.
Although this research is based on the UK automotive sector, the findings emphasise the importance of key skills and understanding as part of students' learning. Research is needed to establish why students appear to undervalue these and establish whether similar patterns exist in other sectors.
The voluntarist approach to UK vocational education and training has, when combined with the need for further education colleges to be economically viable, resulted in courses that appear attractive but do not always meet the automotive sector's needs.
Research is needed to establish whether this is occurring across other sectors. This template process offers a new technique to explore stakeholders' perceptions and expectations.
The findings provide new insights into the mismatches between expectations of the stakeholders in vocational education and training. This article commences with an overview of trust and mistrust, focusing on the debate about whether these are two ends of a continuum or distinct but interrelated concepts. Building on this review, the relationship between employees' perceptions of organizational justice and their self-categorized feelings of trust and mistrust is considered.
It is suggested that organizational justice offers a useful means through which to explain and understand employees' feelings of trust and mistrust. Using case study data drawn from a UK public sector organization, the relationship between employees' feelings of trust and mistrust is explored within a change context.
The data suggest that, whereas some employees perceive trust and mistrust as two ends of a continuum, others see them as distinct concepts. Drawing on organizational justice as an explanatory theory, reasons for these findings are offered. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the coexistence of trust and mistrust and the explanatory value of organizational justice theory in understanding this.
Within the literature, and the NHS itself, it is argued that successfully changing such an organisation requires the sustained commitment, trust and goodwill of staff. As part of developing and maintaining mutual trust and commitment it is widely argued that employers must meet the employee expectations which form part of the psychological contract, an important element of which, Armstrong argues, is being able to trust in management to keep their promises.
Using an anonymous questionnaire that explored areas central to IWL, data were collected from staff in five Primary Care Trusts within one Strategic Heath Authority in relation to their experiences and awareness of what was being done to address these issues. The research found that although the IWL Standard makes very public promises about work-life balance, harassment, equality and the valuing of staff, at best these have only been partially delivered.
Analyses the introduction and first three years of the operation of a new reward system in a financial services organisation. The purpose of the study was to develop an explanatory theory associated with reward system change effectiveness. Following a description of the organisation and its operational context, analyses the new reward system, together with an examination of the specific objectives the organisation's managers hoped it would achieve. Provides an explanation of the methods employed to collect and analyse the data.
The main part of the paper comprises an analysis of these data, which provides evidence that the system was not meeting its objectives. Subsequently uses the literature on reward theory and organisational behaviour to help explain the reasons for such apparent ineffectiveness. Concludes by suggesting a tentative theory of reward system change effectiveness.
Drawing on 28 in-depth interviews with employees, the nature of trust is explored. Supporting earlier findings regarding the relationship between procedural justice and trust, the research also reveals the distinct importance of fairness of treatment interactional justice in enabling trust. Pearson Education; 5th edition 2 April Language: From the Back Cover Through the course of five editions, Research Methods for Business Students has guided hundreds of thousands of student researchers to success in their research proposals, projects and dissertations.
Start your project with confidence and complete it with success. What other items do customers buy after viewing this item? Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Read reviews that mention research methods business students writing a dissertation business student easy to follow step by step well written good quality easy to understand definitely recommend well structured really helpful business management recommend this book research projects great book reference book book for business used this book book bought.
There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. This weighty tome is one of the classics on research methods, with particular reference to business topics. That said, it has useful guidance on many aspects of research that can be appropriate for other areas, particularly the social sciences.
Aimed mainly at Masters students, it provides clear advice, sets out a wide range of methods and covers the all important 'ologies' in a very readable manner. There is a very good support website which is aimed mainly at lecturers. Overall, the combination of underlying theory, discussion topics and specific advice for students is a powerful combination.
I first used this book at the University of Southampton for a second-year undergraduate course in Business Research Methods.
I found it to be an excellent guide for students, particularly those planning to do a final-year dissertation. I am currently using the sixth edition for a course on dissertation preparation and research methods for students taking an accounting MSc at Royal Holloway, University of London.
The book is clear and comprehensive, and relevant for most students, whether they follow a quantitative or a qualitative approach. I would recommend it strongly.
Great easy to read book with really useful and practical tips to help complete my Management dissertation. Not everything in it was relevant to me but the chapters get straight to the point and I found this book invaluable for breaking down what I needed to do and when and how I needed to do it.
One person found this helpful. Kindle Edition Verified Purchase. Highly, highly, highly recommend. My dissertation is killing me and this book is like having a friend hold your hand and tell you everything will okay in the end! Well got a merit for my dissertation but only now finding time to read this properly.
Seems well thought out with clear logical processes for a non researchers. Decent book but was taught most of what was in here in class. This book has been a lifesaver for writing my Marketing dissertation over the past six months! Although some chapters took more reading than others methodological philosophies are difficult anyway everything was really well structured and straight forward.
Definitely recommend this for any research project, i. Textbooks are expensive but this one was worth every penny, as of course all the library copies were taken! It's a must to get it for my course so no excitement there. However, timely delivery, book in excellent condition.
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A comprehensive introduction to research methods in business for students planning or undertaking a dissertation or extensive research project in business and management. The fifth edition of Research Methods for Business Students brings the theory, philosophy and techniques of research to life and enables students to understand the practical /5(3).
Mark N.K. Saunders, Professor of Business Research Methods, University of Surrey. Adrian Thornhill. Philip Lewis © Research Methods for Business Students Instructors Manual on the Web, 5th Edition Saunders © Format On-line Supplement ISBN Availability: Live. Other Student Resources.
Mark Saunders is Professor of Business Research Methods at The Surrey Business School, University of Surrey. Philip Lewis was a Principal Lecturer and Adrian Thornhill was a Head of Department, both at the University of Gloucestershire/5(28). Summary Research Methods for Business StudentsCHAPTER 1 Research • • • • Undertaken in a systematic way On its own With a clear purpose With inte.
Management research should be practical and applied 8 Management research should integrate different 9 perspectives to help interpret the data 10 Management . The aim of literature review papers can be twofold: (a) summarizing existing literature of a topic through identifying key themes and issues, and suggesting grounds for future research (Seuring et al., ); (b) enfolding any scientific literature against existing knowledge and the- ories (Saunders et al., ).